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The Peter Attia Drive

The Peter Attia Drive

Podcast The Peter Attia Drive
Podcast The Peter Attia Drive

The Peter Attia Drive

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5 de 215
  • #179 - Jeremy Loenneke, Ph.D.: The science of blood flow restriction—benefits, uses, and what it teaches us about the relationship between muscle size and strength
    Jeremy Loenneke has a Ph.D. in exercise physiology, a Master’s in nutrition and exercise, and is currently the director of the Kevser Ermin Applied Physiology Laboratory at the University of Mississippi, where he focuses his research on skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). In this episode, Jeremy explains the science of BFR and the mechanisms by which BFR training can produce hypertrophy using low loads. Here, he reviews anatomy and terminology of muscle structure and discusses the evidence that increasing muscular strength may not be dependent on increasing muscle size. Additionally, Jeremy goes into depth on how one might take advantage of BFR training, including practical applications for athletes and average people, as well as the situations for which BFR training would be most advantageous. We discuss: Jeremy’s interest in exercise and weightlifting and his scientific training [3:30]; The microstructure and physiology of muscle [8:00]; Definitions of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers [12:45]; Comparison of strength vs. hypertrophy [21:30]; Blood flow restriction training and the origins of the Kaatsu system [28:30]; The details and metrics related to exercise under blood flow restriction [44:45]; Considerations when training with blood flow restriction: loading, pace, rest, and risks [53:00]; Blood flow restriction studies and the relationship between muscle size and muscle strength [1:04:15]; Evidence that increasing muscular strength is not dependent on increasing the size of the muscle [1:16:30]; Practical applications of blood flow restriction training for athletes and average people [1:27:30]; Situations in which blood flow restriction training is most advantageous [1:35:30]; The mechanisms by which blood flow restriction training can produce so much hypertrophy at such low loads [1:39:45]; Applications of “passive” blood flow restriction training [1:47:15]; What experiments would Jeremy do if he had unlimited resources? [1:51:45]; More. Learn more: https://peterattiamd.com/ Show notes page for this episode: https://peterattiamd.com/JeremyLoenneke  Subscribe to receive exclusive subscriber-only content: https://peterattiamd.com/subscribe/ Sign up to receive Peter's email newsletter: https://peterattiamd.com/newsletter/ Connect with Peter on Facebook | Twitter | Instagram.  
    10/11/2021
    1:59:25
  • #178 - Lance Armstrong: The rise, fall, and growth of a cycling legend
    Lance Armstrong is a legendary figure in professional cycling having won seven consecutive Tour de France titles but also a controversial figure facing scrutiny for the use of performance enhancing drugs. In this episode, Lance takes us through his meteoric rise to one of the most famous athletes in the world and his equally accelerated fall from grace. Lance describes how he persevered through his brutal diagnosis of testicular cancer before rattling off a historic run of seven consecutive Tour de France titles all while facing tremendous scrutiny for his alleged use of performance enhancing drugs such as EPO and cortisone. Lance opens up about his decision to come clean about his use of performance enhancing drugs, the remorse for how he treated other people during that time in his life, and the personal growth that’s helped him emerge on the other end of that. Finally, Lance recounts some of favorite stories from his cycling career, reflects on his legacy, and explains how he stays fit at age 50. We discuss: What everyone wants to know—yes and no questions [2:15]; Lance’s childhood and beginnings of a great athlete [4:15]; Lance’s realization that he had a knack for racing after his first pro race at age 15 [13:00]; The move to cycling full time and a desire to compete in the Olympics [16:30]; Metrics tracked early in Lance’s career and his time with Motorola team [20:00]; The grueling nature of the Tour de France and the beginnings of serious drug usage in cycling [27:00]; The impact of EPO on cycling performance [35:15]; Testicular cancer diagnosis—denial, torturous symptoms, and treatment [38:15] Livestrong is born [50:45]; Return to cycling post-cancer and a crossroad in Lance’s career [53:45] Lance’s rise to prominence in the late 90s and the growing use of EPO in the sport [1:00:00]; Racing in the early 2000’s, blood transfusions, and rivalry with Jan Ulrich [1:12:00]; Retirement in 2005 and a comeback in 2009 [1:22:45]; Lance’s decision to come clean and tell the truth [1:27:30]; Growth through downfall: learning from his mistakes and helping others after their own fall from grace [1:33:00]; Moving forward: Living his life, reflecting on his legacy, the state of Livestrong [1:42:30]; Turning back the clock: Advice Lance would give to his 15 year-old self [1:46:45]; Keeping fit at age 50 [1:51:00]; More. Learn more: https://peterattiamd.com/ Show notes page for this episode: https://peterattiamd.com/LanceArmstrong  Subscribe to receive exclusive subscriber-only content: https://peterattiamd.com/subscribe/ Sign up to receive Peter's email newsletter: https://peterattiamd.com/newsletter/ Connect with Peter on Facebook | Twitter | Instagram.  
    10/4/2021
    1:58:16
  • #177 - Steven Rosenberg, M.D., Ph.D.: The development of cancer immunotherapy and its promise for treating advanced cancers
    Steve Rosenberg is the Chief of Surgery at the National Cancer Institute, a position he has held continuously for the past 47 years. Steve is a pioneer in the field of immunotherapies for cancer and a recipient of nearly every major award in science. In this episode, Steve discusses his inspiration for devoting his career to cancer research and describes his keen observation of two cases of spontaneous cancer remission, driving him to learn how to harness the immune system to treat cancer. Steve’s personal story essentially serves as a roadmap for the field of immunotherapy, from the very non-specific therapies such as interleukin-2, the discovery of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, checkpoint inhibitors, CAR T-cells, and adoptive cell therapy. Perhaps most importantly, Steve expresses his optimism for what lies ahead, especially in the face of some of the more recent discoveries with respect to tumor antigenicity. Finally, Steve discusses the human side of cancer which helps him to never lose sight of why he chose to become a physician. We discuss: Steve’s childhood and inspiration to become a physician and medical researcher [3:15]; Patients that influenced Steve’s thinking about cancer and altered the course of his career [13:15]; The discovery of antigen presentation, Steve’s first job, and why he knew he wanted to study cancer [19:30]; Cancer treatment in the early 1970’s and Steve’s intuition to utilize lymphocytes [26:45]; Cancer cells versus non-cancer cells, and why metastatic cancer is so deadly [31:45]; The problem with chemotherapy and promise of immunotherapy [38:30]; How the immune system works and why it seems to allow cancer to proliferate [43:15]; Steve discovers how to use interleukin-2 to mediate cancer regression [52:00]; The immunogenic nature of certain cancers and the role of mutations in cancer [1:03:45]; The improbable story of how CAR T cell therapy was developed [1:16:30]; The discovery of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and engineering of T cells to recognize specific antigens [1:28:00]; Steve’s experience treating President Ronald Reagan’s colon cancer [1:36:00]; Why Steve has turned down many tempting job offers to focus on his research at the National Cancer Institute [1:41:00]; The role of checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy and the promise of adoptive cell therapy [1:43:00]; Optimism for using immunotherapy to cure all cancers [1:48:00]; The human side of cancer and the important lessons Peter learned from working with Steve [1:52:15]; and More Learn more: https://peterattiamd.com/ Show notes page for this episode: https://peterattiamd.com/StevenRosenberg  Subscribe to receive exclusive subscriber-only content: https://peterattiamd.com/subscribe/ Sign up to receive Peter's email newsletter: https://peterattiamd.com/newsletter/ Connect with Peter on Facebook | Twitter | Instagram.  
    9/27/2021
    2:06:26
  • #176 - AMA #27: The importance of muscle mass, strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness for longevity
    In this “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) episode, Peter and Bob discuss the longevity benefits from greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and greater muscle mass and strength. Conversely, they dive deep into the literature showing a rapid increase in morbidity and mortality risk as fitness levels decline with age. They also try to tease out the relative contributions of CRF, muscle mass, and strength. Additionally, they discuss the impact of fasting on muscle mass, the potential tradeoffs to consider, and finish by discussing why it’s critical to maximize your fitness level. If you’re not a subscriber and listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or on our website at the AMA #27 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here. We discuss: VO2 max and its association with cardiorespiratory fitness [2:45]; Changing mortality risk based on VO2 max and cardiorespiratory fitness [7:45]; The profound impact of improving cardiorespiratory fitness [15:15]; Muscle mass, function, and loss with aging: how it’s defined, measured, and the cutoff points for sarcopenia [25:00]; Increasing mortality risk associated with declining muscle mass and strength [40:00]; Muscle size vs. strength—which has the bigger impact on mortality risk? [58:00]; Evaluating the cumulative impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength on mortality risk when put together [1:03:30]; Investigating the rising incidence in deaths from falls, and what role Alzheimer’s disease might play [1:09:00]; The impact of fasting on muscle mass and the potential tradeoffs to consider [1:14:30]; The critical importance of working to maintain muscle mass and strength as we age [1:20:30]; and More. Learn more: https://peterattiamd.com/ Show notes page for this episode: https://peterattiamd.com/ama27/  Subscribe to receive exclusive subscriber-only content: https://peterattiamd.com/subscribe/ Sign up to receive Peter's email newsletter: https://peterattiamd.com/newsletter/ Connect with Peter on Facebook | Twitter | Instagram.  
    9/20/2021
    18:56
  • #175 - Matt Kaeberlein, Ph.D.: The biology of aging, rapamycin, and other interventions that target the aging process
    Matt Kaeberlein is globally recognized for his research on the biology of aging and is a previous guest on The Drive. In this episode, Matt defines aging, the relationship between aging, chronic inflammation, and the immune system, and talks extensively about the most exciting molecules for extending lifespan. He discusses the current state of the literature of testing rapamycin (and rapalogs) in animals and humans, including Matt’s Dog Aging Project, and provides insights into how we can improve future trials by conceptualizing risk, choosing better endpoints, and working with regulators to approve such trials. He also examines the connection between aging and periodontal disease, biomarkers of aging, and epigenetic clocks. Finally, they explore some of the biological pathways involved in aging, including mTOR and its complexes, sirtuins, NAD, and NAD precursors. We discuss: The various definitions of aging [3:25]; The relationship between disease and the biology of aging [16:15]; Potential for lifespan extension when targeting diseases compared to targeting biological aging [22:45]; Rapamycin as a longevity agent and the challenges of targeting the biology of aging with molecules [32:45]; Human studies using rapalogs for enhanced immune function [39:30]; The role of inflammation in functional declines and diseases of aging [50:45]; Study showing rapalogs may improve the immune response to a vaccine [56:15]; Roadblocks to studying gero-protective molecules in humans [1:01:30]; Potential benefits of rapamycin for age-related diseases—periodontal, reproductive function, and more [1:12:15]; Debating the ideal length and frequency of rapamycin treatment for various indications like inflammation and longevity [1:21:30]; Biomarkers of aging and epigenetic clocks [1:29:15]; Prospects of a test that could calculate biological age [1:37:45]; The Dog Aging Project testing rapamycin in pet dogs [1:42:30]; The role of the mTOR complexes [1:58:30]; mTor inhibitor called Torin2, mitochondrial disease and other potential pathways [2:09:45]; Catalytic inhibitors, sirtuins, and NAD [2:19:15]; NAD precursors: help or hype? [2:28:15]; and More. Learn more: https://peterattiamd.com/ Show notes page for this episode: https://peterattiamd.com/MattKaeberlein2  Subscribe to receive exclusive subscriber-only content: https://peterattiamd.com/subscribe/ Sign up to receive Peter's email newsletter: https://peterattiamd.com/newsletter/ Connect with Peter on Facebook | Twitter | Instagram.  
    9/13/2021
    2:40:39

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