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The Peter Attia Drive

The Peter Attia Drive

Podcast The Peter Attia Drive
Podcast The Peter Attia Drive

The Peter Attia Drive

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  • A masterclass on insulin resistance—mechanisms and implications | Gerald Shulman, M.D., Ph.D. (#140 rebroadcast)
    View the Show Notes Page for This Episode Become a Member to Receive Exclusive Content Sign Up to Receive Peter’s Weekly Newsletter Gerald Shulman is a Professor of Medicine, Cellular & Molecular Physiology, and the Director of the Diabetes Research Center at Yale. His pioneering work on the use of advanced technologies to analyze metabolic flux within cells has greatly contributed to the understanding of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In this episode, Gerald clarifies what insulin resistance means as it relates to the muscle and the liver, and the evolutionary reason for its existence. He goes into depth on mechanisms that lead to and resolve insulin resistance, like the role of diet, exercise, and pharmacological agents. As a bonus, Gerald concludes with insights into Metformin’s mechanism of action and its suitability as a longevity agent. We discuss: Gerald’s background and interest in metabolism and insulin resistance (2:30); Insulin resistance as a root cause of chronic disease (6:30); How Gerald uses NMR to see inside cells (10:00); Defining and diagnosing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (17:15); The role of lipids in insulin resistance (29:15); Confirmation of glucose transport as the root problem in lipid-induced insulin resistance (38:15); The role of exercise in protecting against insulin resistance and fatty liver (48:00); Insulin resistance in the liver (1:05:00); The evolutionary explanation for insulin resistance—an important tool for surviving starvation (1:15:15); The critical role of gluconeogenesis, and how it’s regulated by insulin (1:20:30); Inflammation and body fat as contributing factors to insulin resistance (1:30:15); Treatment approaches for fatty liver and insulin resistance, and an exciting new pharmacological approach (1:39:15); Metformin’s mechanism of action and its suitability as a longevity agent (1:56:15); and More. Connect With Peter on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and YouTube
    11/21/2022
    2:06:36
  • #231 - AMA #41: Medicine 3.0, developments in the field of aging, healthy habits in times of stress, and more
    View the Show Notes Page for This Episode Become a Member to Receive Exclusive Content Sign Up to Receive Peter’s Weekly Newsletter In this “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) episode, Peter answers a wide variety of questions, starting with a discussion on the evolution of medicine and the hopeful transition to “Medicine 3.0.” Peter recounts his unique career path and explains how he assesses risk and utilizes frameworks for decision-making. He also describes how he prioritizes his health while navigating the stresses of life, and he reviews the most exciting developments in the aging and longevity space. He finishes with some rapid-fire questions on cold plunging, strategies for lowering apoB levels, designing an exercise program for beginners, and more. If you’re not a subscriber and are listening on a podcast player, you’ll only be able to hear a preview of the AMA. If you’re a subscriber, you can now listen to this full episode on your private RSS feed or on our website at the AMA #41 show notes page. If you are not a subscriber, you can learn more about the subscriber benefits here. We discuss: The evolution of medicine and the transition to “Medicine 3.0” [3:00]; Peter’s unorthodox career arc and what led him to this point [11:45]; What does Peter consider to be his superpowers? [22:15]; How Peter thinks about risk and explains it to his patients when making medical decisions [26:45]; The advantage of using frameworks for decision-making [37:00]; What advice would Peter give his 30-year old self? [42:15]; Why longevity is such a hard problem to solve [42:30]; The most impactful developments in the field of longevity and aging in the last 5 to 10 years [46:15]; What is Peter most excited to see develop in the health and longevity space in the next few years? [51:30]; Prioritizing healthy habits while navigating the stresses of life and time constraints [53:45]; How Peter navigates periods of high stress [58:00]; What fitness watch did Peter recently purchase? [1:03:45]; Potential benefits of cold plunging [1:05:15]; Advice for someone beginning an exercise program [1:07:30]; Strategies and tactics to lower apoB levels [1:09:00]; Interesting studies and books Peter has recently read [1:11:30]; and More. Connect With Peter on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and YouTube
    11/14/2022
    16:01
  • #230 ‒ Cardiovascular disease in women: prevention, risk factors, lipids, and more | Erin Michos, M.D.
    View the Show Notes Page for This Episode Become a Member to Receive Exclusive Content Sign Up to Receive Peter’s Weekly Newsletter Erin Michos is an internationally-known leader in preventive cardiology and women’s cardiovascular health. In this episode, Erin discusses current trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) through the lens of female biology and the observation that major adverse cardiac events in both sexes are on the rise. She walks through risk factors including LDL-cholesterol, apoB, and Lp(a) and makes the case for the importance of early preventative measures. She explains various interventions for reducing risk including a discussion of statins, GLP-1 agonists, PCSK9-inhibitors, and drugs that lower Lp(a). She goes in-depth on female-specific factors that contribute to CVD risk such as pregnancy, grand multiparity (having five or more children), oral contraceptives, menopause, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Additionally, she explains her approach with patients as it relates to the use of hormone replacement therapy and provides advice for people wanting to lower risk both through lifestyle changes and medications. We discuss: Erin’s background in preventive cardiology and women’s health [2:30]; Recent trends in cardiovascular disease in women, mortality data, and how it compares to cancer [5:15]; Why early preventative measures are critical for cardiovascular disease risk [13:15]; ApoB as a causal agent of CVD, and why high apoB levels are not being aggressively treated in most cases [19:45]; The rising trend of metabolic syndrome and other factors contributing to the regression in progress of reducing cardiac events [27:00]; GLP-1 agonists—Promising drugs for treating diabetes and obesity [33:30]; Female-specific risk factors for ASCVD (pre- and post-menopause) [37:15]; Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prevalence, etiology, and impact on metabolic health, lipids and fertility [47:00]; The effect of grand multiparity (having 5+ children) on cardiovascular disease risk for women [52:30]; The impact of oral contraceptives on cardiovascular disease risk [55:00]; The effect of pregnancy on lipids and other metabolic parameters [58:45]; The undertreatment of women with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and how it increases lifetime risk of ASCVD [1:02:00]; How concerns around statins have contributed to undertreatment, and whether women should stop statins during pregnancy [1:09:45]; How Erin approaches the prescription of statins to patients [1:16:00]; PCSK9 inhibitors and other non-statin drugs [1:21:15]; Advice for the low- and high-risk individual [1:28:30]; The impact of nutrition, stress, and lifestyle on lipids and CVD risk [1:31:00]; Lp(a) as a risk enhancer for cardiovascular disease [1:41:15]; The effect of menopause on cardiovascular disease risk [1:50:30]; How Erin approaches decisions regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for her patients [1:55:30]; The urgent need for more data on women’s health [2:03:30]; Erin’s goal of running a marathon in every state [2:09:45]; and More. Connect With Peter on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and YouTube
    11/7/2022
    2:15:05
  • #229 ‒ Understanding cardiovascular disease risk, cholesterol, and apoB
    View the Show Notes Page for This Episode Become a Member to Receive Exclusive Content Sign Up to Receive Peter’s Weekly Newsletter In this special episode of The Drive, we have pulled together a variety of clips from previous podcasts about cardiovascular disease to help listeners understand this topic more deeply, as well as to identify previous episodes which may be of interest. In this episode, Peter highlights the importance of understanding cardiovascular disease and why early intervention is critical. He also provides a primer on lipoproteins and explains the fallacy of the terms “good cholesterol” and “bad cholesterol.” Allan Sniderman discusses the metrics measured in routine blood work – along with the limitations of those standard panels – before explaining why apoB is a superior metric for determining risk. Additionally, Tom Dayspring explains the causal role of apoB in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and the therapeutic goals for apoB concentration, and Peter explains how early and aggressive lowering of apoB could change the landscape of cardiovascular disease prevention. We discuss: The importance of understanding atherosclerosis early in life [2:25] Defining ASCVD, its causes, and the role of cholesterol [8:00]; Why early prevention of atherosclerosis is critical [13:45]; Preventing atherosclerosis—two fatal flaws with the “10-Year Risk” approach [16:00]; Intro to lipids and lipoproteins: why there is no “bad” or “good” cholesterol [23:00]; Limitations of standard blood panels [35:45]; How Mendelian randomization is bolstering the case for apoB as the superior metric for risk prediction [39:30]; Therapeutic goals for apoB concentration [58:15]; How early and aggressive lowering of apoB could change the course of ASCVD [1:10:45]; and More. Connect With Peter on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and YouTube
    10/31/2022
    1:18:54
  • #228 ‒ Improving body composition, female-specific training principles, and overcoming an eating disorder | Holly Baxter, APD
    View the Show Notes Page for This Episode Become a Member to Receive Exclusive Content Sign Up to Receive Peter’s Weekly Newsletter Holly Baxter is an accredited practicing dietician (APD), competitive bodybuilder, fitness and nutrition educator, and coach. In this episode, Holly discusses her experience as an athlete and competitive bodybuilder. She also opens up about her struggles with mental health, her long battle with an eating disorder, and the important steps she’s taken in her road to recovery. From there, she explains how she would design a nutrition and training program for a hypothetical female client wanting to improve her physique through the addition of lean muscle and loss of body fat. She explains reasonable expectations for gaining muscle and the value of a “reverse diet” for maintaining weight loss, and she shares her favorite exercises. She also talks through some female-specific training considerations such as programming, reps, volume, hormone replacement therapy, and more. We discuss: Holly’s background and passion for sports and nutrition [2:00]; Holly’s struggle with depression and an eating disorder [4:30]; Reflecting on her eating disorder, body image, and a wake up call [18:15]; Road to recovery: therapy, meditation, self-compassion, and a breakthrough [27:45]; The effect of competitive bodybuilding on women [39:00]; Holly’s competition prep and how she guides her clients wanting to improve their physique [46:45]; Training principles for muscle hypertrophy [57:00]; Training advice for an inexperienced person wanting to build muscle [1:01:30]; Training program for a hypothetical woman wanting to add lean muscle and lose body fat [1:04:15]; Lower body lifts: Holly’s approach to leg workouts with clients [1:14:00]; Upper body exercises: Holly’s approach with her clients [1:24:45]; Importance of nutrition and protein during the muscle building phase [1:34:00]; Changes to nutrition and training during a fat loss phase [1:40:30]; A “reverse diet” after a cutting phase to help prevent weight gain [1:49:45]; Female-specific training considerations: programming, reps, volume, sex hormones, and more [1:53:15]; Holly’s future in bodybuilding and helping struggling women [2:05:45]; Looking forward: Holly’s focus on longevity, bone mineral density, and wellness [2:08:15]; and More. Connect With Peter on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and YouTube
    10/24/2022
    2:15:24

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